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h1. Annotation Ontologies and Tools

h2. Annotea
[Annotea|] is an early W3C project (2001-2003) for semantic annotation.
It was the starting point for Annotation Ontology (AO)

h2. Annotation Ontology (AO)

"The Annotation Ontology is a vocabulary for performing several types of annotation - comment, qualifiers (entities annotation, or semantic tags), textual annotation (classic tags), notes, examples, erratum... - on any kind of electronic document (text, images, audio, tables...) and document parts. AO is not providing any domain ontology but it is fostering the reuse of the existing ones for not breaking the principle of scalability of the Semantic Web".
- [Google project|]
- [Documentation 1.0|]
- [Documentation 2.0 draft|]
- [Annotation types|]
-- [Qualifiers|]: instead of free text tag (note), link to a specific entity (URI)

For example: a Broad Qualifier is used when the semantic entity (target of ao:hasTopic) represents broadly the portion of the annotated document (image region). The entity 'Skull Fracture' from ontology ONTO1 is a more generic concept than the specific instance of 'Linear Skull Fracture' in the image (as can be read in ann:body).

- [Annotation Sets|] are containers of Annotation items. They are used to organize collections of items and refer to them as a whole. This can be particularly useful for defining access restriction rules and/or for grouping Annotation items with similar topic. I.e. this can be used for RS "discussion threads"
- [Integration with other ontologies|]
-- these related ontologies are relevant to RS: SKOS, [SWAN Discourse Elements|] (RS is all about Research Discourse), PAV (provenance, authoring, versioning)
-- these may be relevant: Tag, MOAT (meaning of a tag), OMR (media resources), ORB (rhetorical blocks)
-- some concepts are borrowed from these: SIOC (sioct:AnnotationSet), FOAF (aof:annotatesDocument)

- I had some communication with Paolo Ciccarese and he's responsive (the illustrations are made with OmniGraffle, not automatically)
- However, the above is geared to Document annotation (where in a document a semantic entity is found), we need a different thing
- AO's has some Image annotatation concepts. I investigated them but didn't like them a lot

h2. Changes and Annotations Ontology (ChAO)
ChAO is used in Protege for change tracking, collaborative ontology editing, commenting etc.
It's used by the Collaborative Protege and the Changes Tab plugins.
I think it's closest to what we need in ResearchSpace. We'll investigate both the ontology and the way it presents things on the UI.

Describes the "discourse disposition" of a comment, eg:
- Advice
- Comment
- Example
- Explanation
- AgreeDisagreeVoteProposal
- FiveStarsVoteProposal
- Question
- SeeAlso

Collaborative Protege features:
- Annotation of classes, properties and instances with different types of notes (e.g., Comment, Advice, Example, etc.)
- Annotation of changes (for example, class creation, renaming, etc.) with different types of notes
- Notes on the ontology itself
- Proposals and voting (*nice idea*)
- Searching and filtering the notes using different criteria
- Live discussion (chat) with other users connected to the same server


- [Collaborative Protege Wiki|], esp section
(i) [User Guide|]
- [ChAO API|]: only an example how data could be fetched
- [Annotation, Discussion Tools^ChangesTab-Documentation.pdf]
- [Annotation, Discussion Tools^Collaborative Protege (Short Presentation).pdf]
- [Annotation, Discussion Tools^Collaborative Protege (WWW 2007).pdf]
- [Annotation, Discussion Tools^Collaborative Protege- Enabling Community-based Authoring of Ontologies (ISWC 2008 demo).pdf]
- [Annotation, Discussion Tools^Framework for Ontology Evolution in Collaborative Environments (ChAO, ISWC 2006).pdf]
- [Annotation, Discussion Tools^Practical experiences in concurrent, collaborative ontology building using Collaborative Protege.pdf]
- (i) [Annotation, Discussion Tools^Supporting collaborative ontology development in Protege (ISWC 2008).pdf]

h1. Forums
Discussion forums are widely used and there is a wide selection of tools. On the other hand, such functionality is easy to implement ourselves.

h2. Vanilla Forums