- Terms to match
In order to explore the viability of different matching approaches, we decided to do some matching experiments and see what we can see.
- We'll use the web search interfaces of the target data sets described below and do manual searching.
Please add web links below.
- For best results with automated matching, the target data sets wil/l be loaded locally.
Please add a random sampling of data below
- Incorporates Getty ULAN, but has fewer fields (eg doesn't know person-person relations)
- VIAF has a loadable data set and Vlado has explored it somewhat
- Note: don't expect to find in VIAF many people that are not authors/artists. Eg
- Catherine Talbot is in VIAF. She's a writer
- Hon Arabella Talbot is not in VIAF. She's the wife of some dignitary. Presumably a collector or similar.
Has no relation to any of the 115k objects, but may have some realtion to the 2M objects.
Let's see what ULAN has on Rembrandt:
- Important ground-facts that we should use:
- full list of alternative names (with useful scope notes)
- birth/death dates and places
- period and place(s) of activity
- Related people (family relations but also patron/ teacher/ follower...).
- This is a great resource, with definite info, and we should strive to use it.
- It is mathematically closed (maps from people to people), so once we have a match we should leverage it to generate other matches.
- It does not make us solve a harder task (matching Works), as a map person->Works would do.
- NO list of works. Getty's only now working on CONA, but I guess it will be many years
- Lists of refs to biographies, references, subject classifications, contributing institutions.
This established provenance, but not data useful for matching
Let's see what VIAF has on Person = Rembrandt Rijn
There are 3 uncorrelated clusters for Rembrandt, plus 6 more clusters about other people.
Let's see the main cluster:
It does list 86 works under "Uniform Title Links".
- A lot of these are not coreferenced e.g. "Die Anatomie des Doktor Tulp" vs "Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp"
- See how many names about a single work:
Bethsabée au bain tenant la lettre de David
athsheba reading King David's letter
athsheba with King David's letter
ethsabée tenant la lettre du roi David
Bathsheba with David's letter
Bathsheba reading King David's letter
Bathsheba with King David's letter
Bethsabée au bain tenant la lettre de David
Bethsabée tenant la lettre du roi David
|165242||Daniel Tainturier||Tainturier, Daniel||Barrister||Male||British||1746|
|165244||Catherine Tait||Tait, Catherine; Spooner, Catherine||Wife of Archibald Campbell Tait||Female||British||1819||1878|
|165245||Craufurd Tait||Tait, Craufurd||Son of Archibald and Catherine Tait||Male||British||1849||1878|
|165246||John Tait||Tait, John||Broom-seller; centenarian||Male||British||1662||1772|
|165247||John Tait||Tait, John||Of Harvieston||Male||British||1727||1800|
|165249||Mrs Tait||Tait||Female||British||fl. c. 1829|
|165248||Juan Armengol||Armengol, Juan||Silversmith from San Juan Chamultepec.||Male||Mexican|
|165250||Charles Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot||Talbot, Charles; Talbot||Lord chancellor||Male||British||1685||1737|
|165251||Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 2nd Earl Talbot||Chetwynd-Talbot, Charles; Talbot||KG; KP; lord lieutenant of Ireland||Male||British||1777||1849|
|165252||Hon Arabella Talbot||Talbot, Arabella; Ogle, Arabella||Wife of Hon Robert Talbot; m 1 Edward Bouverie||Female||British||1855|
|165253||Catherine Talbot||Talbot, Catherine||Writer; friend of Mrs Elizabeth Carter; died unmarried||Female||British||1721||1770|
|165255||Christopher Rice Mansel Talbot||Talbot, Christopher Rice Mansel||politician/statesman; MP for Glamorganshire||Male||British||1803||1890|
|165254||Da Silva||Da Silva||Painted a portrait of Gomes de Mesquita (d. 1751), engraved in mezzotint by Faber Junr., with a Portuguese inscription. His name on the print is given as 'Sl da Silva'.|
|165256||Edward Stuart Talbot, Bishop of Winchester||Talbot, Edward Stuart; Winchester||DD||Male||British||1844|
|165257||Sir Gilbert Talbot||Talbot, Gilbert||KG; of Grafton; Worcestershire; son of 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury; soldier, merchant and diplomatist||Male||British||1515|
- BM data:
id prefName altNames activity gender nationality birth death 78705 Alfred Smith Smith, Alfred clockmaker/watchmaker Male British - - 195294 Alfred Smith Smith, Alfred architect Male British - -
- ULAN data:
id Uniform name Roles Gender Nationalities birth death 500007285 Smith, Alfred (French artist, 1853-1942) artist,painter male French 1853 1942 500007285 Smith, Carlton Alfred (British painter, 1853-1946) artist,painter male British 1853 1946
In this case we can do reliable matching (NO match) based on the structured data: Activity does not match Roles.
|165242||Daniel Tainturier||Tainturier, Daniel||Male||British||1746|
|165244||Catherine Tait||Tait, Catherine; Spooner, Catherine||Female||British||1819||1878|
|165245||Craufurd Tait||Tait, Craufurd||Male||British||1849||1878|
|165246||John Tait||Tait, John||Male||British||1662||1772|
|165247||John Tait||Tait, John||Male||British||1727||1800|
|165249||Mrs Tait||Tait||Female||British||fl. c. 1829|
|165248||Juan Armengol||Armengol, Juan||Male||Mexican|
|165250||Charles Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot||Talbot, Charles; Talbot||Male||British||1685||1737|
|165251||Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 2nd Earl Talbot||Chetwynd-Talbot, Charles; Talbot||Male||British||1777||1849|
|165252||Hon Arabella Talbot||Talbot, Arabella; Ogle, Arabella||Female||British||1855|
|165253||Catherine Talbot||Talbot, Catherine||Female||British||1721||1770|
|165255||Christopher Rice Mansel Talbot||Talbot, Christopher Rice Mansel||Male||British||1803||1890|
|165254||Da Silva||Da Silva|
|165256||Edward Stuart Talbot, Bishop of Winchester||Talbot, Edward Stuart; Winchester||Male||British||1844|
|165257||Sir Gilbert Talbot||Talbot, Gilbert||Male||British||1515|
Target: there are 3 competing data sets and no clear winner
- GeoNames is the best source of modern names.
But museum data sometimes goes below the place level (eg a certain Cathedral or Theatre)
- Pleiades for ancient names
- Getty TGN
Note: you'll get some Archaic names if you set offset 100.
|x56040||Djibouti||Africa||French Somaliland; Jibuti||Modern||C|
|x68414||Bukuti||Democratic Republic of Congo||Modern||I|
|x64942||Orientale||Democratic Republic of Congo||Haut-Zaire; Upper Zaire||Modern||E|
|x21095||Sudan||Africa||Anglo-Egyptian Sudan; Egyptian Sudan||Modern||C|
|x68425||Kibonge||Democratic Republic of Congo||Modern||O|
|x68428||Kupoujo||Democratic Republic of Congo||Modern||O|
|x55444||Katanga||Democratic Republic of Congo||Shaba||Modern||E|
Target: Getty AAT, Objects facet
Auxiliary source: Wordnet.
|thes:x5234||arms-holder||arms equipment; holder||-|
|thes:x9013||sheath||scabbard||arms/armour||The term 'sheath' is restricted to the context of arms equipment. See also Narrow Terms 'saya' and 'shirazaya'.|
|thes:x5235||arms-rest||arms equipment; rest||-|
|thes:x7308||hunting equipment||agriculture/subsistence||This includes objects associated with hunting for sport as well as for subsistence. See also FISHING EQUIPMENT, GAMES AND SPORTS and WEAPON categories.|
|thes:x7098||gun||fire-arm; flintlock; matchlock||weapon||-|
|thes:x5245||arrow-stand||arms equipment; stand||-|
|thes:x5240||arrow-head||arrow head; arrow point; arrowhead; arrow-point||arrow; component||This term is only entered as an Object Name for arrow heads found on their own. See also records with Object Name 'arrow'.|
Target: Getty AAT, Materials facet
Auxiliary source: Wordnet.
- Eg see sysets and semantic relations for cotton
|thes:x10402||bone||animal||The form of the bone, eg: 'skull', 'femur', etc. should be entered in the Description field.|
|thes:x10370||bird egg||egg||Use for the whole egg, or the contents of the shell; for the eggshell, enter BIRD EGGSHELL.|
|thes:x10760||egg||animal product||Use for the whole egg, or the contents of the shell; for the eggshell alone, enter EGGSHELL.|
|thes:x10761||eggshell||animal product||Use the term for the shell only: if the egg is included, enter EGG.|
|thes:x10372||bird of paradise feather||feather||-|
|thes:x10373||bird of paradise skin||bird skin||-|
|thes:x10374||bird of paradise tissue||bird tissue||-|
|thes:x10377||bison bone||mammal bone||-|
|thes:x10380||bison skin||mammal skin||-|
|thes:x11991||wool||felt||hair; textile||Although felt may not be made entirely of wool, wool is a major constituent. Any additional materials are entered where known.|
|thes:x10383||black bear skin||bear skin||-|
|thes:x10384||black lily root||lily root||-|
|BM||BM prefLabel = altLabels||BM broaders||AAT||AAT term||AAT hierarchy||Notes|
|x10402||bone||animal||300011798||bone (material)|| Materials Facet/ Materials (Hierarchy Name)/ <materials by composition>/ <combination inorganic/organic material>/ <combination inorganic/organic animal material>
ALT: Objects Facet/ Components (Hierarchy Name)/ components (objects)/ <components by specific context> / <animal or human components>
|Qualifier in label|
|x10369||bird claw||claw||n/a||n/a||There is "claw" but no "bird claw"|
|x10589||claw = talon||animal||300379351||claws||Objects Facet/ Components (Hierarchy Name)/ components (objects)/ <components by specific context> / <animal or human components>|| NO parent in Materials Facet (compare to "bone").
Shows that hierarchies in different thesauri are more brittle/arbitrary than labels
|n/a||n/a||n/a||300040710||talons||Objects Facet/ Components (Hierarchy Name)/ components (objects)/ <components by specific context>/ <furnishings components>/ <furniture components>/ <feet and foot components: furniture>/ <foot components>||In AAT "talons" has altLabel "claws" but "claws" doesn't have altLabel "talons" (which IMHO is an omission).
In BM "claw" and "talon" are synonyms.
In wordnet "claw" is a hypernym of "talon" (which is defined as a "sharp hooked claw").
The AAT case shows that two synonyms could be used in totally unrelated subtrees, so disambiguation is needed
|x10370||bird egg||egg||n/a||n/a||There is "emu egg" but no "bird egg"|
|x10760||egg||animal product||300011801||egg||Materials Facet/ Materials (Hierarchy Name)/ materials (matter)/ <materials by origin>/ <biological material>/ animal material/ <animal material by form or function>/ <egg and egg components>||Perfect match|
|x10371||bird eggshell||eggshell||n/a||n/a||There is "ostrich eggshell" but no "bird eggshell"|
|x10761||eggshell||animal product||300191893||eggshell (animal material)||Materials Facet/ Materials (Hierarchy Name)/ materials (matter)/ <materials by origin>/ <biological material>/ animal material/ <animal material by form or function>/ <egg and egg components>/ <egg components>|| Multiword qualifier in name.
Another concept with different qualifier "eggshell (pottery style)" is unrelated.
Shows importance of handling qualifiers (not just throwing them out) for disambiguation
|x10372||bird of paradise feather||feather||n/a||n/a||No concept "bird of paradise" in AAT|
|x10373||bird of paradise skin||bird skin||n/a||n/a||No concept "bird of paradise" in AAT|
|x10375||bird skin||skin||300379982||bird skin||Materials Facet/ Materials (Hierarchy Name)/ materials (matter)/ <materials by origin>/ <biological material>/ animal material/ <collagenous material>/ skin (collagenous material)||Perfect match|
|x10374||bird of paradise tissue||bird tissue||n/a||n/a||No concept "bird of paradise" in AAT|
|x10377||bison bone||mammal bone||n/a||n/a|| AAT has "bone (material)", and separately "Bison (genus)" in "Agents Facet/ Living Organisms/ Eukaryota (domain)/ Animalia (kingdom)/ Chordata (phylum)/ Vertebrata (subphylum)/ Mammalia (class)/ Artiodactyla (order)/ Bovidae (family)"
BM: this is an example of a precoordinated (AND) term, which is generally considered a bad practice.
BM: it's a bit unclear whether this means Bison (genus) or one of its two species: "Bison bison" (American bison) or "Bison bonasus" (European bison)"
|x10378||bison hoof||hoof||n/a||n/a||See above|
|x10379||bison horn||horn||n/a||n/a||See above|
|x10380||bison skin||mammal skin||n/a||n/a||See above|
|x10381||bison wool||wool||n/a||n/a||See above|
|x11991||wool = felt||hair; textile||300243430||wool (textile)||Materials Facet/ Materials (Hierarchy Name)/ materials (matter)/ <materials by form>/ <materials by physical form>/ <fiber and fiber products>/ <fiber products>/ <textile materials>/ <textile materials by composition or origin>|
|300014074||wool (hair)||Materials Facet/ Materials (Hierarchy Name)/ materials (matter)/ <materials by origin>/ <biological material>/ animal material/ <keratinous material>/ <hair and hair components>/ hair/ <hair by form>|| BM term has two equally good exactMatches
AAT says in related concepts: "object(s) using/produced by wool (hair) are wool (textile)".
So AAT differentiates raw material from end product (which itself is a material), while BM does not
|x10383||black bear skin||bear skin|
|x10384||black lily root||lily root|