Primer Glossary

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This documentation is NOT for the latest version of GraphDB.

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[OWLIM 5.4]
[OWLIM 5.3]
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Datalog A query and rule language for deductive databases that syntactically is a subset of Prolog.
D-entailment A vocabulary entailment of an RDF graph that respects the 'meaning' of data types.
Description Logic A family of formal knowledge representation languages that are subsets of first order logic, but have more efficient decision problems.
Horn Logic Broadly means a system of logic whose semantics can be captured by Horn clauses. A Horn clause has at most one positive literal and allows for an IF...THEN interpretation, hence the common term 'Horn Rule'.
Knowledge Base (In the Semantic Web sense) is a database of both assertions (ground statements) and an inference system for deducing further knowledge based on the structure of the data and a formal vocabulary.
Knowledge Representation An area in artificial intelligence that concerns representing knowledge in a formal way such that it permits automated processing (reasoning).
Materialisation The process of inferring and storing (for later retrieval or use in query answering) every piece of information that can be deduced from a knowledge base's asserted facts and vocabulary.
Named Graph A group of statements identified by a URI. It allows a subset of statements in a repository to be manipulated or processed separately.
Ontology A shared conceptualisation of a domain, described using a formal (knowledge) representation language.
OWL See 'Web Ontology Language'
OWL Horst An entailment system built upon RDF Schema, see R-entailment.
Predicate Logic Generic term for symbolic formal systems like first-order logic, second-order logic, etc. Its formulas may contain variables which can be quantified.
RDF Graph Model The interpretation of a collection of RDF triples as a graph, where resources are nodes in the graph and predicates form the arcs between nodes. Therefore one statement leads to one arc between two nodes (subject and object).
RDF Schema A vocabulary description language for RDF with formal semantics.
Resource An element of the RDF model, which represents a thing that can be described, i.e. a unique name to identify an object or concept.
R-entailment A more general semantics layered on RDFS, where any set of rules (i.e. rules that extend or even modify RDFS) are permitted. Rules are of the form IF...THEN... and use RDF statement patterns in their premises and consequences, with variables allowed in any position.
Resource Description Framework (RDF) A family of W3C specifications for modelling knowledge with a variety of syntaxes.
Semantic Repository A knowledge base engine that is specifically designed to support RDF and the semantics of the various formal languages based upon it.
Semantic Web The concept of attaching machine understandable metadata to all information published on the internet, so that intelligent agents can consume, combine and process information in an automated fashion.
SPARQL The most popular RDF query language.
Statement See 'triple'.
Triple A basic unit of information expression in RDF. A triple consists of a subject-predicate-object.
Universal Resource Identifier (URI) A string of characters used to (uniquely) identify a resource.
Web Ontology Language (OWL) A family of W3C knowledge representation languages that can be used to create ontologies.

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